Theory question bank update 2016: Part 8


Theory question bank in parts, reorganized and updated till 2016: Part 8

What new in this update
1. All questions organised.
2. Questions arranged chapter wise as per appearance in Nelson’s textbook of Pediatrics.
3. Arranged in chronological order old first and latest last.
4. Adequate space and gaps given to take side notes and jot down points for last minute revision.
HOW TO INTERPRET THE QUESTIONS
1. Questions are divided based on Chapters of Nelsons Textbook of Pediatrics
2. Questions contain two numbers at the end. Numbers within bracket indicates the year. For example (97/1)- 97 means year 1997 & 1 means June (2 means December). Thus (06/1) means June 2006
3. Number at the end of the question (not within bracket) indicates marks

22. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

THYROID GLAND

1. Management of Puberty Goiter (93/1)15
2. Diagnosis of Congenital Hypothyroidism (95/1)15
3. Management of Puberty Goiter (98/2)15
4. Endemic Cretinism (99/2)15
5. Congenital Hypothyroidism (00/1)15
6. Etiopathology of Congenital Hypothyroidism 15
7. Goitrogenic Hypothyroidism (03/2)15
8. Briefly list the various thyroid function tests. Describe clinical presentation and management of autoimmune thyroiditis. (04/2)6+4
9. What are the changes seen in Thyroid Hormone levels around birth. Describe the salient features of Neonatal Thyroid Screening programme (06)10
10. Congenital Hyperthyroidism (07/1)10
11. Neonatal Thyroid Screening (07/2)10
12. Discuss causes, clinical features and management of Acquired Hypothyroidism (07/2)10
13. Discuss the synthesis of thyroid Hormones. Outline the causes of congenital hypothyroidism and a brief comment on neonatal thyroid screening. (09/1)3+7
14. Thyroid hormone synthesis and its derangements. (10/1) 6+4
15. Enlist common causes of acquired hypothyroidism in a 12 year old girl. Discuss in brief the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. (12/1)3+4+3
16. Clinical features and management of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 5(1/16)

DIABETES MELLITUS

1. Emergency management of DKA (93/1)15
2. Management of DKA (95/2)15
3. Complications of Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus and their management (97/1)15
4. Describe briefly the biochemical changes and management of DKA (98/1) 25
5. 8 year, h/o vomiting, severe abdominal pain for 2 days. Dehydrated, acidotic breathing, Blood glucose (random) 400. Outline the management (05)10
6. Write management of DKA (06)5
7. Management of a child with IDDM (06/2)10
8. Write risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in children (07/2)10
9. Classify severity of diabetic ketoacidosis on the basis of clinical and blood gas examination. Briefly describe Somogyi and Dawn phenomenon in type 1 diabetes. (08/1)10
10. Discuss the metabolic changes associated with diabetic ketoacidosis with steps of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. (08/2)10
11. A 10 year old child (body weight 22kg) presents with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Write down the expected clinical and investigate findings. Outline the plan of management in first 24 hours. (09/1)4+6
12. What are the biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? What are the goals of therapy? How will you manage a 7 yr old child with DKA? (11/2)3+3+4 Rpt (Apr16 same marks)
13. Discuss the pathophysiological abnormalities in diabetic ketoacidosis. Describe the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a child weighing 20 kg. (13/2) 4+6
14. Hyperosmolar non ketotic diabetic coma 5(1/16)
15. A. What are the biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)?
      B. What are the goals of therapy?
      C. How will you manage a child with DKA? 3+2+5(1/16)

METABOLIC SYNDROME

1. Diagnosis and complication of Metabolic syndrome 4(1/16)
HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY
1. Indications of Growth Hormone Therapy (93/2)10
2. What are the causes of Dwarfism? How will you investigate such a case (97/2)15
3. SIADH (99/1)(99/2)10
4. How will you diagnose and treat SIADH in a child (06)5
5. How will you assess a child presenting with features of Diabetes Insipidus (06)10
6. A 4 year old child presents with polydipsia and polyuria. How will you establish a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus in this case? Discuss its management. (08/1)10
7. Diagnostic approach for a child who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. (10/1)10
8. Outline the diagnostic criteria of diabetes insipidus. Discuss the management of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. (10/2)4+6
9. Enumerate the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary and list the factors stimulating and inhibiting secretion of growth hormone. (10/2)3+7
10. Outline the diagnostic criteria for Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH). Discuss its etiopathogenesis. (12/1)6+4
11. Discuss approach to the diagnosis of a child presenting with polyuria and polydipsia. (13/2)10
12. A 5 year old boy has attained a height of 137 cm. What could be the cause(s) for this situation and which specific clinical pointers may be useful for determining the cause. How will you evaluate this child for an underlying endocrinological disorder? (13/2) 6+4
13. Write short notes on the evaluation and treatment for a child with:
a.SIADH 5(14/1)
b.Virilisation 5
14. A) Enumerate hormones secreated by anterior pituitary.
      B) Factors stimulating and inhibiting secretion of growth hormone (15/1) 3+7
15. Causes , clinical presentation ,investigations and management of diabetes insipidus 1+2+3+4(15/1)
16. A child with suspected diabetes insipidus is brought to hospital. How will you approach, investigate and manage this patient? 2+3+5 (1/16)

ADRENAL GLAND

1. Management of adrenogenital syndrome (96/2)15
2. Short note- female with Ambiguous genitilia at birth (02/1)15
3. Salt losing CAH (03/1)15
4. Outline human sex differentiation. Provide an outline of the approach to an infant with ambiguous genitalia. (04/2)4+6
5. Explain synthesis of Steroid Hormones. Discuss Briefly approach to a child born with ambiguous genitilia (05)5+5
6. Causes of Adrenal Crises and discuss its management (06)10
7. Diagnosis and management of a child with CAH (06/1)10
8. Discuss approach to a child with ambiguous Genitilia (06/2)10
9. Enumerate the causes of adrenal crisis. Provide key features of clinical presentation and discuss its management. (08/1)10
10. Discuss karyotype abnormalities, clinical features and management of true hermaphroditism. (08/1)10
11. Define delayed puberty in a male child. List the possible causes. Describe changes in male genitals in different stages of sexual maturation. (08/2)10
12. Discuss the normal physiology of puberty and its relation to sexual
development. (09/1)4+6
13. A 1 ½ year old female is brought to you with obesity, short stature, hypertension and hypertrichosis of face and trunk. Provide differential diagnosis and approach to investigating and managing this child. (09/1)3+7
14. Describe the diagnostic approach in a 2 year old child with ambiguous
genitalia (09/2)10
15. Physiology of puberty in boys and girls (10/1)10
16. Clinical features, investigations & treatment of pheochromocytoma. (10/1)3+3+4
17. Outline the diagnostic approach to a 14 years old boy with infantile
genitalia. (10/1)10
18. Define and classify precocious puberty in boys according to its etiology. Outline the approach for investigating a boy with precocious puberty. (11/1)2+4+4
19.Describe normal sexual differentiation in fetus. What is intersex? Describe etiological classification of disorders of Sex Development (DSD). (11/2)2+2+6
20.Define delayed puberty. Describe its etiology and diagnostic evaluation. (13/2)2+4+4
21. Define precocious puberty in boys. Enumerate causes of precocious puberty in boys (14/2)5
22. A)Define disorders of sexual differentiation( DSD ) in new born
b)Nursery evaluation of a newborn with suspected DSD by history, physical examination and diagnostic tests.
c)issues in management of DSD (15/1)2+6+2
23.a)Adrenal steroid hormone synthesis 5
     b)Outline biochemical consequences of defects in the classical 21- hydroxylase deficiency and its management (2+3)(APR16)
24. a)Outline steps involved in synthesis of steroid hormones. 3
      b)clinical features & management of classical congenital hyperplasia. (4+3)(01/16)
25. Enumerate causes and management of adrenal crisis 5(1/16)

PARATHYROID GLAND

1. Role of hormones in calcium balance (03/2)15
2. Outline the calcium metabolism. Discuss the causes and management of Hypocalcaemia in 3 yrs old. (07/2)10
3. Differentiate between the laboratory features of hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism. (08/1)(12/1)10
4. Describe the calcium metabolism in a child. Detail the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of a child with pseudohypoparathyroidism. (08/2) 10
5. Discuss the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of hypercalcemia. (09/1)10
6. Define hypocalcemia. Enumerate hormones affecting calcium balance in the body. Describe the respective roles in calcium homoestasis (13/1)2+3+5
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