Theory question bank update 2016: Part 7

Theory question bank in parts, reorganized and updated till 2016: Part 7

What new in this update
1. All questions organised.
2. Questions arranged chapter wise as per appearance in Nelson’s textbook of Pediatrics.
3. Arranged in chronological order old first and latest last.
4. Adequate space and gaps given to take side notes and jot down points for last minute revision.
1. Questions are divided based on Chapters of Nelsons Textbook of Pediatrics
2. Questions contain two numbers at the end. Numbers within bracket indicates the year. For example (97/1)- 97 means year 1997 & 1 means June (2 means December). Thus (06/1) means June 2006
3. Number at the end of the question (not within bracket) indicates marks



1. a) Structure of glomerulus with diagrammatic representation. 6
b) What are the Glomerular changes in rapidly progressive
glomerulonephritis? 4(Apr16)


1. List the children to be selected for assessing renal function. Briefly
Discuss the tests used to assess the renal function in children. (04)3+7
2. Outline the development of glomerular filtration. Outline the methods for evaluating GFR in children. (08/1)10


1. Persistent asymptomatic proteinuria (98/2)(07/1)10
2. Proteinuria (96/2)15


1. A 3 year old child was brought for Hematuria. Discuss the differential diagnosis and management (94/2)25
2. Diagnosis and management of recurrent Hematuria (96/1)12
3. Evaluation of a child with Hematuria 15
4. Outline the differential diagnosis of an abdominal lump with
hematuria in a 3 year old child. Describe its investigations and
treatment. (09/2)3+3+4
5. Write the common causes and differential diagnosis of gross
symptomatic hematuria. Provide an algorithm for its laboratory and radiological evaluation. (10/2)2+2+6
6. Outline the causes of red coloured urine. Provide an approach for evaluation of a child with headache. (11/1)3+7
7. Discuss the pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and
treatment of infantile polycystic kidney. (11/2)2+2+3+3


1. Discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features and management of acute PSGN
2. Enumerate the complications of acute post – streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Describe their management in brief. (10/2) 3+7


1. Relapse in Nephrotic Syndrome (94)15
2. What factors will you consider in deciding the prognosis of a child with Nephrotic syndrome (95/1)15
3. Pathophysiology of Nephrotic Syndrome (96/2)10
4. Enumerate the principles of management of Idiopathic Nephrotic syndrome (98/2)10
5. Frequently relapsing steroid resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (03/2)15
6. What factors help you to clinically decide non-minimal nature of Nephrotic Syndrome? Enumerate the steps to test urine for albumin using heat methods (05)10
7. Histopathological changes in RPGN 15
8. Write the management of a 6 year old child with Nephrotic syndrome who is frequently relapsing. Enumerate complications that can occur
9. Management of steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (07/2)10
10. Describe the diagnostic approach and management in a case of
frequently relapsing and steroid dependent nephritic syndrome. (09/2)4+6
11. Management of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. (10/1)10
12. Define steroid dependent and frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Describe management of an 8 year old child with frequent relapsing nephrotic syndrome. (11/1)2+2+6
13. Enumerate the causes of SRNS and discuss its management.(14/2)4+6
14. Outline management of steroid resistant nephritic syndrome 5(15/2)
15. Management of steroid resistant and steroid dependent nephritic syndrome 5+ 5(Apr 16) Rpt (1/16)


1. Biochemical and endocrinal changes in CRF
2. Describe the pathogenesis of CRF and outline important principles in the management of such a case (95/2)25
3. What are the causes of ARF in children? How will you investigate such a case? Discuss management. (97/1)25
4. What are the causes of acute renal failure in a 4 year old child. How will you investigate such a case. Discuss the management of acute
renal failure. (04/2)4+3+3
5. Outline the etiopathogenesis of ARF in children. Discuss briefly the management (05)5+5
6. List the causes of renal failure in a 3 month old child. Discuss the clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of acute renal failure in children. Discuss the indications of renal biopsy in children
7. Discuss the etiology of cortical necrosis in newborns and older
children, separately. State the most important clinical manifestations of cortical injury and factors governing prognosis. (08/1)10
8. Discuss the role of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy
(indication, dose, aim, precaution, benefits and complications) in management of chronic renal failure. List reasons of resistance to such therapy. (08/1)10
9. What is acute renal failure? List the common causes leading to it. Tabulate the laboratory indices used to differentiate pre-renal and
intrinsic acute renal failure. Outline the medical management of acute renal failure. (08/1)10
10. Define renal osteodystrophy. Enumerate its clinical features and
outline the management. (09/2)2+3+5
11. Write short notes on: (13/1)
a) Pediatric RIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury 5
b) Urinary indices in acute renal failure 5
12. Define Chronic kidney Disease (CKD) and its stages. What are the clinical manifestations of CKD. Outline its treatment. (13/2) 3+4+3


1. Renal replacement therapy in ESRD (00/1)15
2. Peritoneal dialysis (03/1)15
3. Renal replacement therapy (06/1)10
4. Discuss renal replacement therapy (07/1)10


1. Diagnostic features of HUS (93/2)15
2. HUS- etiopathogenesis and diagnosis (98/1)15
3. Classify Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Discuss its pathogenesis, clinical features and management. (13/2)2+3+3+2
4. Classification, etiopathogenesis and management of hemolytic uremic syndrome. (16/1)3+4+3


1. Diagnosis and management of RTA (92/2)15
2. Classify types of RTA and their management principles (02/1)15
3. Pathogenesis, clinical features and management of Distal Renal Tubular disorder (07/2)10
4. Define anion gap and its utility. Outline the major causes of metabolic acidosis in children. Outline the treatment of renal tubular acidosis. (04/2)2+4+4
5. Enumerate renal tubular functions and describe the tests to evaluate tubular disorders for the proximal tubule. How will you treat a child with proximal renal tubular acidosis? (14/1)3+4+3
6. Diagnosis and management of Distal renal tubular acidosis. 5(1/16)


1. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (98/2)15
2. How do you classify and treat lupus nephritis 5 (1/16)



1. Investigation of a 7 year old boy with Recurrent UTI (93/2)10
2. Describe the etiological factors, clinical manifestations and management of children with UTI (95/2)25
3. Management of a 2 year old child with first attack of UTI (99/2)10
4. Recurrent UTI in childhood (02/1)15
5. Recurrent UTI (03/2)15
6. Classify UTI and provide an algorithm for management of a child with first episode of UTI (05)3+7
7. Imaging studies indicated in a child with UTI (06)10
8. Discuss approach to a child with recurrent urinary tract infections. What are the indications, goal and schedule of antimicrobial prophylaxis in treating such a child? (09/1)10
9. What are the clinical manifestations of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children? Describe the plan of investigations and management of a 2 year old boy with recurrent UTI. (09/2)2+4+4
10. How is urinary tract infection diagnosed? Draw an algorithm for evaluation of a child after the first episode of UTI. Describe the utility of a DMSA scan. (14/1)2+5+3


1. Discuss criteria for diagnosis, staging and management of VUR(92)25
2. Management of an infant with VUR (93/1)15
3. Outline the grades of vesico-ureteric reflux. Discuss the management of a child with recurrent urinary tract infection with grade 4 vesico-ureteric reflux. (04/2)4+3+3
4. Give the grading of VUR. Outline its evaluation and management in children (07/2)10
5. Clinical features, grading and management of vesico-ureteric reflux (10/1)3+3+4
6. Write short note on: Grading of vesico-ureteric reflux and indications of surgical intervention in children with vesico-ureteric reflux (10/2)3+2
7. Define vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Classify the grades of VUR. Discuss in brief the medical and surgical management of VUR in children. (11/1)2+2+6
8. Grading ,classification and natural history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). (15/1)3+3+4


1. Neurogenic Bladder (98/2)15
2. Write short notes on: a) Voiding dysfunctions in children (13/2) 5


1. Write a short note on non-specific vulvo-vaginitis in children with special emphasis on its etiopathogenesis and treatment (08/1)10
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