Theory question bank update 2016: Part 13


Theory question bank in parts, reorganized and updated till 2016: Part 13

What new in this update
1. All questions organised.
2. Questions arranged chapter wise as per appearance in Nelson’s textbook of Pediatrics.
3. Arranged in chronological order old first and latest last.
4. Adequate space and gaps given to take side notes and jot down points for last minute revision.
HOW TO INTERPRET THE QUESTIONS
1. Questions are divided based on Chapters of Nelsons Textbook of Pediatrics
2. Questions contain two numbers at the end. Numbers within bracket indicates the year. For example (97/1)- 97 means year 1997 & 1 means June (2 means December). Thus (06/1) means June 2006
3. Number at the end of the question (not within bracket) indicates marks

32. VACCINES

VACCINOLOGY

1. Enumerate all the diseases against which vaccines are currently available (93/2)15
2. Immunization schedule basis in child suffering from AIDS (94)15
3. Live vaccines used in pediatric age group (95/1)10
4. Adverse reactions that may occur following use of vaccines included in the National Immunization Schedule in India (95/2)10
5. Describe briefly various adverse reactions following vaccinations and discuss their management (97/2)25
6. Combination vaccine (99/2)(03/1)15
7. Vaccine Vial Monitor 15
8. Tabulate the various newer vaccines available to prevent respiratory disease in children, with their types, dosage schedule, route, important side effects and efficacy. (11/2)10
9. Salient differences between the National and IAP immunization schedule. (13/1)(5)
10. Describe the criteria or conditions to be considered for approving a ‘newer’ vaccine in an immunization program of a developing country. (08/1) (13/2) 10
11. Define the following: (13/1)2X5
a) Herd immunity
b) Herd effect
c) Vaccine immunogenicity
d) Vaccine efficacy; and
e) Vaccine effectiveness
12. Cold Chain (00/1)15 Rpt(14/2)5
13. Conjugate vaccines (15/1) 3

RABIES VACCINE

1. Write briefly about different types of vaccine against rabies. Discuss various schedules of pre and post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies.(12/1) 5+5
VARICELLA VACCINE
1. Varicella vaccine (00/1)15
MEASLES VACCINE
1. Complications of measles vaccination and management (94/2)15

HiB VACCINE

1. H Influenzae B vaccine (98/2)15
2. Tabulate the following details with regards to Rotavirus vaccine, HIB vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine: (09/2)10
a) Type of vaccine
b) Dose
c) Route
d) Appropriate age of vaccination
e) Justification of its usage
f) Side effect and
g) Drawback

TYPHOID VACCINE

1. Typhoid Vaccines (97/1)15

HEPATITIS B VACCINE

1. Hepatitis B immunization (93/2)10
2. Hepatitis B vaccine (96/1)Rpt(97/1)10

PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE

1. Pneumococcal vaccine (96/2)15

INFLUENZA

1. Influenza Type B vaccine (98/1)15

DPT

1) Current status of post-DPT vaccine encephalopathy (93/1) 15

PERTUSIS

1) Discuss the aetiology, pathogenesis and prevention of pertussis in children.Write the differences in efficacy, duration of protection and adverse effects between whole cell and acellular pertusis vaccine. (14/1)6+4
2) Complications of Pertussis 3(15/2)
3) Diagnosis and management of pertussis 5 (Apr16)

POLIO

1. Status of Polio vaccines (93/1)15
2. Discuss the current role, advantages and disadvantages of OPV and IPV in control and eradication of poliomyelitis in India. (11/1)4+6
3. What is inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). What are the advantages and disadvantages of IPV over OPV? What is the schedule of IPV as recommended by IAP. (14/2) 3+5+2
4. VAPP (Vaccine Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis) 5 (Apr16)

HPV

1. Utility and controversy of HPV Vaccine. (10/1)5+5
2. HPV vaccine (15/1)4

ROTA VIRUS

1. Rota virus vaccine (15/1) 3

33. MISCELLANEOUS

STATISTICS

1. Define and describe the following concepts used for measuring growth: a) Percentile b) Percent of median c) Z scores. Discuss their relation to each other. (12/1) 2+2+3+3
2. Discuss the following: (14/1)3+3+4
a) Student’s ‘t’ test
b) Sample size
c) Ethics in research
d) Types of error in research study (14/2)4
3. Define and explain sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of a diagnostic test. (10/2)2.5 X 4(14/2) 2+2+2
4. a)Component of ethics in biomedical research 4
    b) “p value” and its level of significance 3
    c)Association concealment 3(15/1)
5. a)What is bias in medical research 2
    b)Common types of bias and the methods to minimize bias in analytic studies 4+4(15/2)
6. a)What is relative risk (RR) and discuss its implications.? 1+3
    b)What is usefulness of confidence interval? 3
c)Implications of sensitivity and specificity. 3(15/2)

EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE

1. Define evidence based medicine, as applicable to pediatric practice. Enlist basic steps in the practice of evidence based medicine. Name few databases of systematic reviews. (08/1)10
2. Clarify the concept of evidence based medicine. Define ‘strength of evidence’and ‘quality of evidence’. Provide suitable examples to justify your definitions. (11/1)3+3+4
3. What is Evidence Based Medicine? How are the guidelines based on Evidence Based Medicine developed? How are the recommendation graded for the level of evidence? (11/2)2+4+4
4. a)Evidence based medicine 6
b)Forest plot in meta analysis 4(Apr16)
5 a)Clinical trials phase 1,phase 2, phase 3 and phase 4. 5
b)Ethics in biomedical research 5(Apr 16)
6. Forest plot graph 3 (01/16)
7. Meta-analysis 3 (01/16)

OTHER

1. PCR (92)15
2. Discuss diagnosis and management of an unconscious child (92/2) 25
3. Epidemiology and prevention of accidents in children (92/2)15
4. Value of USG in pediatrics (93/1)10
5. Role of Upper GI Endoscopy (93/1)15
6. Recent understanding of SIDS (94/1)15
7. Dimorphic child (94/2)15
8. Pathogenesis of oedema (95/1)15
9. Food Fussiness in children (95/1)10
10. Effect of Television watching in children (95/1)15
11. Tetany in children (96/1)12
12. Role of oxygen free radicals in the causation of childhood diseases (97/1)15
13. Discuss the measures to prevent accidents in children (98/1)25
14. Prevention of Vertically transmitted diseases (99/1)15
15. PCR and its significance in clinical practice (00/1)15
16. Outline the common ethical issues in pediatric practice. Briefly discuss the process of decision making in pediatric life sustaining interventions. (04) 4+6
17. Discuss management of child with injuries (05)5
18. CPAP (06)10
19. Hospital Waste Management (06)10
20. Role of Pediatrician in Disaster management (06/1)10
21. Discuss safe injection practices at a level three health care facility. Outline the management of a needle stick injury to a health care provider 10 minutes back. (08/2)10
22. Tips on parental guidance for computer and internet usage by children (13/1)(5)
23. Free radicals 5(15/2)
24. Safe injection practices at level III care with respect to burden / deficiencies, risks, technique, handling and disposal 2+2+2+2+2 (15/2)
25. Bioterrorism 3(Apr 16)
26. Radiation sickness 3(Apr 16)
27. Oxygenation index 3(1/16)

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