DNB Theory question bank 2022 | Nephrology

This is a 2022 update on previously asked questions in the DNB pediatrics theory exam. The questions are arranged topic-wise.

How to use?

  1. Questions are arranged in chronological order, latest first
  2. Each question is followed by a Numbers.
  3. Numbers in bracket are Year followed by session, 1 is June session, 2 is December session eg. (2022/1) is a question from June 2022 question paper
  4. The number after the bracket is Marks allotted for eg. 5+5 is 5 marks for each subquestion.

Section 1. Glomerular diseases

Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

  1. Draw diagram of nephron (2019/2) 3
  2. Anatomy and functions of nephron (2018/2) 4
  3. a) Structure of glomerulus with diagrammatic representation. 6
    b) What are the Glomerular changes in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis? 4 (Apr 2016)
  4. List the children to be selected for assessing renal function. Briefly Discuss the tests used to assess the renal function in children. (2004)3+7
  5. Outline the development of glomerular filtration. Outline the methods for evaluating GFR in children. (2008/1)10

Section 2. Conditions particularly associated with hematuria

Clinical Evaluation of the Child With Hematuria

  1. Approach to a child with gross hematuria (2019/2)5
  2. Management of 5-year-old child presenting with 1 episode of hematuria (2019/1) 5
  3. Causes of recurrent hematuria (2017/1) 5
  4. Outline the causes of red colored urine. Provide an approach for evaluation of a child with headache. (2011/1)3+7
  5. Write the common causes and differential diagnosis of gross symptomatic hematuria. Provide an algorithm for its laboratory and radiological evaluation. (2010/2)2+2+6
  6. Outline the differential diagnosis of an abdominal lump with hematuria in a 3-year-old child. Describe its investigations and treatment. (2009/2)3+3+4
  7. Evaluation of a child with Hematuria 15
  8. Diagnosis and management of recurrent Hematuria (1996/1)12
  9. A 3-year-old child was brought for Hematuria. Discuss the differential diagnosis and management (1994/2)25

Isolated Glomerular Diseases Associated With Recurrent Gross Hematuria

  1. Etiopathogenesis of RPGN (2017/2) 6
  2. Discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of acute PSGN
  3. Enumerate the complications of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Describe their management in brief. (2010/2) 3+7

Multisystem Disease Associated With Hematuria

  1. Diagnosis and management of hemolytic uremic syndrome. (2020/01)5
  2. Management of HUS (2017/2) 4
  3. Classification, etiopathogenesis and management of hemolytic uremic syndrome. (2016/1)3+4+3
  4. Classify Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Discuss its pathogenesis, clinical features and management. (2013/2)2+3+3+2
  5. HUS- etiopathogenesis and diagnosis (1998/1)15
  6. Diagnostic features of HUS (1993/2)15

Anatomic Abnormalities Associated With Hematuria

  1. Renal artery stenosis diagnosis and management (2021/1) 5
  2. Discuss the pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of infantile polycystic kidney. (2011/2)2+2+3+3

Section 3. Conditions particularly associated with proteinuria

Clinical Evaluation of the Child With Proteinuria

  1. Renal biopsy indications. (2021/2) 5
  2. Indication of kidney biopsy in a child with massive proteinuria (2018/1) 4
  3. Persistent asymptomatic proteinuria (1998/2)(07/1)10
  4. Proteinuria (1996/2)15

Nephrotic Syndrome

  1. Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. 5+5 | (2020/2)5
  2. Immunomodulator therapy in nephrotic syndrome (2019/1) 5
  3. Treatment options of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (2018/2) 5
  4. Treatment of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome [2018/1/5], (2017/1) 5
  5. What is the pathogenesis of oedema in nephrotic syndrome? (2018/1)5
  6. Management of steroid resistant and steroid dependent nephritic syndrome 5+ 5 (Apr 2016)
  7. Outline management of steroid resistant nephritic syndrome 5(2015/2)
  8. Enumerate the causes of SRNS and discuss its management. (2014/2)4+6
  9. Define steroid dependent and frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Describe management of an 8-year-old child with frequent relapsing nephrotic syndrome. (2011/1)2+2+6
  10. Management of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. (2010/1)10
  11. Describe the diagnostic approach and management in a case of frequently relapsing and steroid dependent nephritic syndrome. (2009/2)4+6
  12. Management of steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (2007/2)10
  13. Write the management of a 6-year-old child with Nephrotic syndrome who is frequently relapsing. Enumerate complications that can occur (2006/2)10
  14. Enumerate the steps to test urine for albumin using heat methods (2005)10
  15. What factors help you to clinically decide non-minimal nature of Nephrotic Syndrome?
  16. Frequently relapsing steroid resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (2003/2)15
  17. Enumerate the principles of management of Idiopathic Nephrotic syndrome (1998/2)10
  18. Pathophysiology of Nephrotic Syndrome (1996/2)10
  19. What factors will you consider in deciding the prognosis of a child with Nephrotic syndrome (1995/1)15
  20. Relapse in Nephrotic Syndrome (1994)15

Section 4. Tubular disorders

Renal Tubular Acidosis

  1. Diagnosis and management of RTA (1992/2)15
  2. Classify types of RTA and their management principles (2002/1)15
  3. Outline the treatment of renal tubular acidosis. (2004/2)2+4+4
  4. Pathogenesis, clinical features and management of Distal Renal Tubular disorder (2007/2)10
  5. Enumerate renal tubular functions and describe the tests to evaluate tubular disorders for the proximal tubule. How will you treat a child with proximal renal tubular acidosis? (2014/1)3+4+3
  6. Diagnosis and management of Distal renal tubular acidosis. 5(1/2016)

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

  1. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (1998/2)15

Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

  1. Discuss etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of Bartter Syndrome. (2013/2)

Renal Failure

Acute Renal failure

  1. Medical management of acute kidney injury and indications of dialysis. | (2021/1) 5+5
  2. Investigations and management of AKI (2019/2)7
  3. Pathophysiology, causes, clinical features, and management of acute renal failure (2017/1) 5
  4. Write short notes on (2013/1)
    a. Pediatric RIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury 5
    b. Urinary indices in acute renal failure 5
  5. What is acute renal failure? List the common causes leading to it. Tabulate the laboratory indices used to differentiate pre-renal and intrinsic acute renal failure. Outline the medical management of acute renal failure. (2008/1)10
  6. Discuss the etiology of cortical necrosis in newborns and older children, separately. State the most important clinical manifestations of cortical injury and factors governing prognosis. (2008/1)10
  7. List the causes of renal failure in a 3-month old child. Discuss the clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of acute renal failure in children. Discuss the indications of renal biopsy in children (2006)10
  8. Outline the etiopathogenesis of ARF in children. Discuss Briefly the management (2005)5+5
  9. What are the causes of acute renal failure in a 4-year-old child. How will you investigate such a case? Discuss the management of acute renal failure. (2004/2)4+3+3
  10. management. (1997/1)25
  11. What are the causes of ARF in children? How will you investigate such a case? Discuss

Chronic Renal failure

  1. Renal osteodystrophy. (2020/01) 5
  2. Renal osteodystrophy (2018/2) 5
  3. Define Chronic kidney Disease (CKD) and its stages. What are the clinical manifestations of CKD. Outline its treatment. (2013/2) 3+4+3
  4. Define renal osteodystrophy. Enumerate its clinical features and outline the management. (2009/2)2+3+5
  5. Discuss the role of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy (indication, dose, aim, precaution, benefits, and complications) in the management of chronic renal failure. List reasons of resistance to such therapy. (2008/1)10
  6. Describe the pathogenesis of CRF and outline important principles in the management of such a case (1995/2)25
  7. Biochemical and endocrinal changes in CRF

Renal Replacement therapy

  1. Discuss renal replacement therapy (2007/1)10
  2. Renal replacement therapy (2006/1)10
  3. Peritoneal dialysis (2003/1)15
  4. Renal replacement therapy in ESRD (2000/1)15

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