DNB Theory question bank 2022 | Cardiovascular system

This is a 2022 update on previously asked questions in the DNB pediatrics theory exam. The questions are arranged topic-wise.

How to use the question bank?

  1. Questions are arranged in chronological order, latest first
  2. Each question is followed by a Numbers.
  3. Numbers in bracket are Year followed by session, 1 is June session, 2 is December session eg. (2022/1) is a question from June 2022 question paper
  4. The number after the bracket is Marks allotted for eg. 5+5 is 5 marks for each subquestion.

Section 1. Developmental biology of the cardiovascular system

Chapter 447. Cardiac Development

  1. Embryology of heart development (2016/2) 5

Chapter 448. The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

  1. Describe/Diagramatic representation of fetal circulation. (2022/01)5
  2. Fetal circulation and changes after birth (2020/01)5
  3. Fetal circulation and changes at birth. (2018/1)
  4. Depict diagrammatically fetal circulation. Highlight its unique features differentiating it from neonatal circulation. Outline important changes occurring at birth. (2011/1)4+3+3
  5. Fetal circulation and changes after birth (2010/1)5+5, (2015/1) 4+3
  6. Draw a labeled diagram of fetal circulation. Indicate partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) values at key points in this circulation. (2008/1)10
  7. Outline Fetal Circulation (2007/2)
  8. Fetal Circulation and cardiovascular adjustments after birth (2006/1)10

Section 2. evaluation of the cardiovascular system and the child with a heart murmur

Chapter 449. History and Physical Examination in Cardiac Evaluation

  1. A one-year-old child is referred for an asymptomatic cardiac murmur. Outline the likely causes. How will you differentiate an innocent murmur from that of a congenital heart disease, on clinical grounds? (2009/1)3+7
  2. Explain the pathophysiology of fixed splitting of S2 (2005)10
  3. Enumerate the conditions where you can get a. Loud S2 b. Wide splitting S2
  4. Significance of S2 in clinical practice (1998/1)15

Chapter 450 Laboratory Cardiac Evaluation

  1. Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterisation (2019/2) 5

Section 3. Congenital heart disease

Chapter 453. Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Left-to-Right Shunt Lesion

  1. Screening test for ASD (2021/1) 5
  2. Indications of closure of ventricular septal defects in children. (2020/2) 5
  3. Illustrate the pathophysiology of R-L shunt. (2020/2) 5
  4. Medical management of PDA (2018/2) 5
  5. Describe the development of ventricular septum. Discuss the clinical features and management of VSD, and enumerate the indications for surgical intervention. (2014/1)3+3+2+2

Chapter 457. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Lesions Associated With Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

  1. Pulse oxymetry screening for critical congenital heart disease.
  2. Management of a neonate with cyanotic congenital heart disease.  (2022/1) 5
  3. Pathophysiology and treatment of cyanotic spells. (2018/1) 5, (2019/1)
  4. Complications of TOF (2017/2) 5
  5. Causes of blue spells in neonates (2017/2) 6
  6. Describe the hemodynamics and clinical features of tricuspid atresia in a neonate. Outline the expected findings on ECG and chest X-ray. (2013/1) 3+3+2+2
  7. Discuss the hemodynamics and pathophysiology of Tetralogy of Fallot. Outline management of cyanotic spell in a 2-year-old child. (2012/1)4+3+3
  8. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of Eisenmenger Syndrome (2007/1)10
  9. How will you manage a child in cyanotic spell (2006)5
  10. What are the congenital heart diseases associated with cyanotic spells. Write clinical presentation and management of cyanotic spell. (2004/2)2+3+5
  11. Pathophysiology of Cyanotic spells (2002/1)15
  12. Management of Paroxysmal Hypercyanotic spell (1999/2)15
  13. Complications of Fallot’s Tetralogy and their management (1999/2)10
  14. How do you classify congenital cyanotic heart disease? Discuss their investigations (1997/2)15
  15. Cyanotic Spell (1994/2)15

Chapter 458. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Lesions Associated With Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

  1. Hyperoxia test (2020/2) 5
  2. Clinical features and management of Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (2016/2) 5

Chapter 460. Pulmonary Hypertension

  1. Pathophysiology of Eisenmenger syndrome (2018/2)5

Chapter 461. General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

  1. Discuss the various minimally surgical invasive devices and procedures available for the management of common congenital heart diseases in children. (2007/1)10

Section 4. Cardiac arrhythmias

Chapter 462. Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

  1. Arrhythmias in children, Diagnosis and their immediate management in ER. (2022/1) 5
  2. ECG differences in tachyarrthymias (2021/1) 5
  3. Approach to arrhythmia in children (2019/2)5
  4. Management of SVT (2019/1) 5
  5. Enumerate difference between sinus tachycardia and SVT in a tabular format (2017/2) 4
  6. AVNRT (AV Nodal Re-Entrant tachycardia) 4(1/2016)
  7. Enumerate life threatening tachyarrhythmias in childhood. How would you diagnose them? Briefly outline their emergency interventions. (2012/1) 2+4+4
  8. Tachycardia (SVT) in an infant (2010/2)3+3+4
  9. Enumerate the causes and outline the characteristics and treatment of Supraventricular
  10. Classify anti – arrhythmic drugs used in children. Describe the mechanism of action and uses of Amiodarone. (2010/1)5+5
  11. Classify stable and unstable arrythmias. Discuss the types of SVT (Supra Ventricular Tachycardia) with their ECG changes. Outline the approach to manage unstable arrhythmias (2008/2)10
  12. What are the causes, manifestations and management of a young child with SVT (2006)10
  13. Describe the etiopathogenesis of supraventricular tachycardia in children. Discuss the diagnosis and management of a child with supraventricular tachycardia. (2004/2)3+3+4
  14. Arrythmias- pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of different types (2003/2)15
  15. Classification of cardiac arrythmias and management of WPW Syndrome (1992)15

Chapter 463. Sudden Death

  1. Recent understanding of SIDS (1994/1)15

Section 5. acquired heart disease

Chapter 464. Infective Endocarditis

  1. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis in heart disease [2018/2] 5
  2. Outline Duke criteria for diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis. Discuss its application in clinical setting. (2013/1)6+4
  3. Enumerate common pathogens of infective endocarditis. List conditions/ interventions which require prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in a child with underlying heart disease. Outline antibiotic therapy for a child with RHD and infective endocarditis. (2011/1)2+3+5
  4. Pathogens, clinical features and management of infective endocarditis. (2010/1)2+4+4

Chapter 465. Rheumatic Heart Disease

  1. All possible radiological and echo findings of RHD  (2021/2) 5
  2. Treatment of Acute Rheumatic carditis (1997/1)15

Section 6. Diseases of the myocardium and pericardium

Chapter 466. Diseases of the Myocardium

  1. Differential diagnosis and treatment modality of DCM (2019/1) 5
  2. Management of acute myocarditis[2018/2]5
  3. Causes of cardiomyopathy in children (2017/1) 5
  4. Discuss in brief the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management of dilated cardiomyopathy. (2012/1)3+3+4
  5. Diagnosis of Cardiomyopathy (1996/2)12
  6. Cardiomyopathy (1995/1)15

Chapter 467. Diseases of the Pericardium

  1. Diagnosis and management of Constrictive Pericarditis (1999/2)10

Section 7. cardiac therapeutics

Chapter 469. Heart Failure

  1. Management of congestive heart failure (2017/2) 5
  2. A 2-month old baby presents with history of failure to gain weight, tachypnea, tachycardia, difficulty in taking feed and excessive perspiration. On examination –no cyanosis, hepatomegaly and systolic murmur is noted. Discuss differential diagnosis, investigations and management. 4+3+3(2015/2)
  3. A 3-year-old child having fever for 2 days suddenly develops breathlessness, tachycardia and sweating. Describe the differential diagnosis of this case and its treatment. (2009/2)5+5
  4. List the causes of congestive heart failure in a 2 years old child. Describe different types of VSD according to position and size. Write indicators for surgical intervention/ device closure. (2008/1)10
  5. A 13-year-old male is brought with an H/o progressive Dyspnea on exertion. He has past H/o recurrent joint pain. What is the most likely diagnosis? How will you investigate and manage the child? Add a note on Refractory CCF in a child (2005)5+5
  6. Discuss the role of vasodilator therapy in congestive heart failure. Enumerate various vasodilator agents used in CHF and their respective mechanisms of action. (2008/1)10
  7. Refractory congestive heart failure- causes and management (2007/2)10
  8. Discuss the pathogenesis of Congestive Heart failure and the role of vasodilators in its management (2006)10
  9. How will you manage a child in Refractory CCF (2006)5
  10. CCF- Pathophysiology and management (2003/2)25
  11. ACE inhibitors in CCF with congenital heart disease (2003/1)15
  12. Intractable congestive heart failure- management approach (2002/1) 15
  13. Describe Briefly the Pathophysiology of CCF and management of Refractory Failure (1998/2)25
  14. Treatment of Intractable CCF (1993/2)10
  15. Newer approaches in management of CCF (1993/1)15

Section 8. diseases of the peripheral vascular system

Chapter 472. Systemic Hypertension

  1. Updated definition of increased BP in Stage 1 and stage 2 of hypertension.  (2022/1) 5
  2. Discuss the evaluation of a child with BP>95th centile +12mmHg recorded twice during opd visit.  (2022/1) 5
  3. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure in children. (2020/01)5
  4. Treatment of hypertensive emergency (2018/1) 5
  5. An 8-year-old child is brought with a history of convulsions and altered sensorium. His BP is 180/110 mm Hg. Discuss the D/D and laboratory investigations and management of this patient. 3+3+4(Apr 2016)
  6. Define Hypertension in children. Enumerate the causes and discuss the management of an 8 years old boy presenting with a blood pressure of 210/160 mm Hg with seizures. (2014/1)2+3+5
  7. Describe the causes and pathogenesis or renal and renovascular hypertension. Outline principles of management. (2012/1)3+3+4
  8. A 10 year old boy is brought with a history of convulsions and altered sensorium. On examination, his BP was 180/110 mm of Hg. Describe differential diagnosis, laboratory investigations and treatment of this case. (2009/2)3+4+3
  9. Discuss the treatment of Hypertension in children. Classify the drugs used to treat hypertension and Briefly mention their mechanism of action (2007/2)10
  10. Essential Hypertension in children (2007/1)10
  11. Recent advances in management of Hypertension (2006/1)10
  12. A 8 year old child is brought with a history of convulsions and altered sensorium. On examination her BP was 180/110 mm Hg. Discuss the D/D and laboratory investigations in this child. Discuss the management of Hypertensive Encephalopathy in this child. Add a note on fundus changes in hypertension. (2006)10
  13. management of such a case (2002/1)25
  14. Discuss the causes of Hypertension in a 7-year-old child. Approach of investigation and Severe Hypertension in infancy (2000/1)15
  15. Discuss etiology, diagnosis and management of Childhood Hypertension (2000/1)25
  16. Treatment of Hypertension (1997/2)12
  17. Investigations in a child with Hypertension (1995/1)10
  18. Diagnosis of Essential Hypertension in children (1993/1)10
Topicwise DNB questions in cardiovascular system

You can join hands with the rest of us to build this resource further and learn together.


If you have other ideas to contribute, u can also get in touch via hello@dnbpediatrics.com

💡 Join the Discussion!

🩺 Help us refine this article — share corrections or additional information below. Let's elevate the accuracy of knowledge together! 💉💬

Cookies Consent

We use cookies from google to enhance browsing experience, analyze traffic, and personalize content. By continuing to use the site, you consent to use cookies. Privacy Policy

About cookies